Lucius Septimius Bassianus (April 4, 188 – April 8, 217), commonly known as Caracalla, was Roman emperor from 209 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he murdered the latter in 211. Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized throughout the empire. Caracalla’s reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana, granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire, according to historian Cassius Dio in order to increase taxation. He then had the silver content in Roman coinage reduced by 25 percent in order to increase the pay of the legions. He also ordered the construction of a large thermae outside Rome, the remains of which, known as the Baths of Caracalla, can still be seen today.