Classical Greek sculpture flourished from 6th-4th century BC. The sculptor Polykleitos could be deemed as the creator of the Classical Period. He created works with a true naturalism and balance, unlike the rigid poses of the Archaic period. He was the first to use ideas of scale and mathematical proportions in order to create the perfectly proportioned figure. Skopas and Lysippos successfully followed him using the ideas set out in his canon. Lysippos noted a greater realism could be captured in making the heads of his figures smaller as well as elongating the body, creating much more realistic sculptures. His scrutinising attention to detail emphasised this desire to make his sculptures as realistic as possible.
Hellenistic sculpture covers the period from 4th-1st century BC, from where the Roman period takes on. Hellenistic sculpture brought about the perfect sculpture-in-the-round, allowing the statue to be admired from all angles; study of draping and effects of transparency of clothing; suppleness of poses. Thus, Venus de Milo, even while echoing a classic model, is distinguished by the twist of her hips. This search is particularly flagrant in the portraits: more than the precision of the traits represented, the artist seeks to represent the character of his/her subject. Hellenistic sculpture is incredible realistic and plastic in expression and pose, a perfection of the art of sculpture.
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