Pergamon or Pergamum, was an ancient city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located 16 miles (26 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281–133 BC. Today, the main sites of ancient Pergamon are to the north and west of the modern city of Bergama. The Kingdom of Pergamon was an Hellenistic kingdom founded by Attalus I in the 3rd century BC. The kingdom gradually expanded and reached its peak in 188 BC, after the Treaty of Apamea. In 133 BC, King Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman people.
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